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Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download Now. For Later. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Calculations Review for Evaluation Exam of pharmacist. Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Prescribing Behavior of HealthCar 6. Theories of Human Inference Providers 7.

Administrative Programs for Controlling Prescribing 8. Using Persuasion to Improve Prescribing 9. How Communication Affects Therapeutic Outcomes Barriers To Interprofessional Relations Demand and Elasticity of Demand Healthcare System : Financial Statements and Relative Terms : Depreciation : Healthcare System Healthcare Delivery System It is a very hard task to define health since it is not limited to a single factor.

For example, if we try to define health by using medical definition, it would not be sufficient since there are sociological, epidermological, health planning, and physiological definitions as well. In short, it 1s hard to define health by using a In medical terms, health may be defined as the absence of disease or the maintenance of physiological parameters within accepted norms e.

Anderson has summatized epidermological and health planning definitions into five major categories. These are: 1 Health as a product or outcome the result of adequate planning and utilization of resources.

Health as an everchanging dynamic process the interaction between agent, host, and environment. For example, one must have laminar flow hood in order to provide the highest of parenterals admixtures. It does not matter how efficient or smart you are, structural resources play an important role to address the quality of care, Referring to the above example, obviously if you have a home-infusion company without laminar flow hood, the quality of parenteral preparations will be considered poor.

Therefore, the structural resources would be considered necessary to obtain a high level of quality care. Referring to the parenteral preparation example, the use of aseptic technique while making IV admixtures is defined as a process resource.

Outcomes: It refers to the experience of a patient who receives the care. The high quality of care is assumed when the patient experiences the desirable outcomes. Thus, the structure, process, and outcomes are intended to be part of an integ iple that explains the quality of care is a hospital with a CAT scanner is presumed to render a higher quality of care than a hospital without one. Health Behavior Health behavior is an action taken by a healthy person for the purpose of remaining healthy or in an asymptomatic state, For example, brushing teeth, avoiding tobacco ; and alcohol, regular exercising, wearing a seat belt, ete.

People engage in such behav- habit, attraction, fear, and death, ied model of quality care assessment. Another exai iors for seyeral reasons, includin flode!

Accure to action that may trigger appropriate action when needed. Christensen also proposed that compliance with the drug therapy is a dynamic process in which patients continuously reassess the decision to comply Fincham and Wertheimer used the Health Belief Model to predict the patient's initial compliance rate with drug prescriptions.

Illness as a biophysical state involves changes in bones, tissues, of vital fluids of any living organism. Illness as a social state involves changes in behavior that occur only among humans and that may vary with the culture.

A person may have a disease and not be ill 2. A person may be ill and not have a disease. Now, it may be possible that a person with the disease of hypertension may be asymptomatic, and therefore not il. And, as not being ill, this person may not seek care. An opposite of this can also be true. A person who experiences dizziness or headaches may perceive himself or herself as ill, seek care, and be diagnosed as disease-free.

It is socially defined by sociologists. Biology e. Behavior e. Pre and post environments including physical, biological, economical, and social 4.

The healthcare system yww. Health Behavior: Any activity undertaken by a person who believes himself to be healthy, for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting disease in an asymptomatic stage. Health behavior of people can be successfully expressed by the Health Belief Model. According to this model, people who step up to obtain preventive care or follow good nutrition and exercise in order to maintain good health are driven by the following factors: The psychological effects of an individual for example, a person whose father is suffering from diabetes will more likely be involved with preventive care than a person without such psychological effects.

The individual must also believe that a proposed action should be feasible and appro- Priate to use, and that it would reduce susceptibility to the condition or to the serious- ness of the condition.

Some sort of cue or stimulus is needed to trigger an action response. For example, a person with poor eating habits may be convinced to pay more attention to eating habits if they are told they may cause ulcer or bowel problems in the long run. Health Locus of Control Model and Health Behavior: This is another theoretical model that is widely used to,explain an individual health behavior. This model is usually administered to large population samples, and can be measured by a survey instrument.

Factors that affect individual health behavior under this model are: Previous illness experience Religious belief Educational level Economic status wow.

For example, Steve is a handsome young man. The observer can assign another characteristic to him: I think he is an honest young man. In the above example, the observer is making an attribu- tion based on what he noticed. However, an attribution made by an observer may be true or may not be.

There are three possibilities 1, Steve may always exhibit th trait honesty or 2, Steve may exhibit this trait honesty only in certain situations. For example, in above case Steve may be a dishonest in most instances, however at the time when the observer is making an attribution, his behavior may likely give off an impression that he is a honest person. They see themselves as actors and interpret their responses as more of a response dependent on different situations while they observe others.

Acting as observers, they tend to see stable characteristic in others a stable characteristic does not vary by situations. Take for example a pain related to headache. Many of us experience the head- ache on an infrequent basis and seek situational explanation for the cause of it.

The headache may be because of poor sleep or due to a lack of coffee in the morning. In this example, we are responding to a symptom by seeking a situational explanation for the pain.

For some people however, the symptoms of a headache are more permanent. For example, a person suffering from migraine. For such a person, these symptoms become a characteristic of him. He is able to say he is healthy despite chronic disease migraine headache because he can do the things that he expects to be able to do.

Symptoms that are unusual and associated with perceived risk, and that interfere with day to day function of the life, may often lead to action on the part of the patient. Mehta has a habit of smoking. He smokes 10 to 15 cigarettes per day. This is called the unfreezing phase. Mehta's lungs are not functioning properly, and a physician advised him to quit smoking. Those new activities must be solidified, habituated, and reinforced so that they continue over time.

Referring to Mr. A Force Field Analysis helps to visualize these various forces. In Figure 1. Forces listed that encourage change are defined as driving forces, whereas the other forces that make change difficult are described as restraining forces.

In a practical life, these forces are complex, and each may have dual characteristics of encouraging and preventing a change. Familiarizing with these forces may be helpful for patients as well as healthcare providers, www.


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