The granules which cover the ripe fruit are used in India as a dye "kamala" for dyeing silk and wool bright orange. Kamala also serves as a preservative for vegetable oils and dairy products. Kamala is also recorded to be used as a dye for food-stuffs and beverages, which seems unlikely because it is generally known as a purgative. The granules on the fruit have been widely used as an anthelmintic and to treat skin complaints, e.

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Botany Banato is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 10 meters, with the branchlets, young leaves and inflorescence covered with brown hairs. Leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate, with a pointed tip and rounded base, 7 to 16 centimeters long, with toothed or entire margins, the apex pointed, and the base rounded. Upper surface of the leaf has two smooth glands; the lower surface, glaucous and hairy with numerous, scattered crimson glands. Male flowers are numerous, 3 millimeters in diameter, axillary, solitary or fascicled spikes, 5 to 8 centimeters long.

Female flowers are in solitary racemes, 3 to 7 centimeters long, and three-cornered. Fruit is somewhat spherical, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter, unarmed but densely covered with red or crimson powder, with three cells, each containing a dark grey, rounded seed that is flattened on one side.

Distribution - Common in thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes. Constituents - Phytochemical screening of stems yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, gum, oil and resins, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Five of these are: rottlerin, isorottlerin, a wax, and two resins. Parts used Leaves, bark and seeds. Uses Folkloric - Fungal skin infections: Pound leaves or seeds and apply on affected areas.

Leaves and bark are used for poulticing cutaneous diseases and pounded seeds are applied to wounds. Fruit powder used to treat skin conditions. Kernels are used as anthelmintic. Used in treatment of rheumatic diseases : Among the tribe of Chhota Nagpur, root is grounded and applied to painful articular rheumatism. In Burma , seeds are ground to a paste and applied to wounds and cuts. Today, kamala is rarely used as a dye because of expense and competition of less expensive synthetic dyes.

Wood sometimes used as timber for implements. Bark used to make rope. Wood often used as fuel wood. They inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells suggesting the new phloroglucinol derivatives have anti-allergic effects. Results showed the fractions separated possess strong antioxidant and antiradical properties.

Results suggest a potential as antioxidant for food, functional foods, or nutraceuticals. The antineoplastic effect was believed to have been triggered by induction apoptosis through caspase-2 activation.

Leaf extract was more active than Kamala powder in scavenging free radicals. Flavanoids finger printing of leaves showed vitexin, isovitexin and rutin. Extracts showed significant activity against human pathogens such as Strep pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, P. The ethyl acetate and butanol fraction exhibited strong antibacterial P. On antimicrobial testing, it was found to have medium activities on all six types of microorganisms.

Extract was found lethal to trematodes; the alcoholic extract most effective in vitro and in vivo. The MPE was found safe in rats given up to 10 times of optimal dose. Results showed wound healing effects probably due to decrease in free radical generated tissue damage, promoting effects on antioxidant status and faster collagen deposition as evidenced biochemically and histologically. Results showed significant solicidal activity compared with standard anti-parasitic drug Praziquantel, with almost no associated side effects.

The hexane contract showed highest toxicity against pdeficient HL cells. The polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Results showed a significant increase in body weight and significant decrease in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

Effect may be due to the phenolics in the bark extract. Seven plants, including M. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of M.

Mallotus B exhibited cytotoxicity for MIAPaCa-2 and HL cells, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and causes defective cell division, and induces apoptosis as evidenced by cell morphology. There was strong activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, without any response against S.

The effect was may be attributed to the presence of phloroglucinol derivatives, chalcone derivatives and some glycosides. The formulation showed potent anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The extracts of selected plants showed maximum activity against all bacterial strains. Stuart Jr. Last Update December Arg Lam. Epub Mar Food Sci. Muell Arg. Tangavelou and S. Gupta, C. Shukla, G. Bisht, D. Saikia, S. Kumar and R. Jain, Anup S. Gupta, Shashi Bhushan, Sandip B.

Bharate, and Ram A. Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions. Alternative Medicine Dictionary. Plant Names. Scientific names. Common names. Aconceveibum trinerve Miq. Apuyot Sul. Croton montanus Willd. Buas Ilk. Croton philippensis Lam. Darandang Tag. Kamala Engl.

Euonymus hypoglaucus H. Euonymus hypoleucus H. Panagisen Ibn. Panagisian Ibn. Mallotus bicarpellatus T. Mallotus philippensis Lam. Mallotus reticulatus Dunn.

Sala Tag. Mappa stricta Rchb. Tafu Ibn. Tagusala P. Tutula Tagb. Rottlera Engl. Other vernacular names. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI if available will often redirect to the new link page.


Mallotus philippensis

Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Mallotus philippinensis species are known to contain different natural compounds, mainly phenols, diterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, isocoumarins, and many more especially phenols; that is, bergenin, mallotophilippinens, rottlerin, and isorottlerin have been isolated, identified, and reported interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory activity protein inhibition against cancer cell. We have selected all the pharmacological aspects and toxicological and all its biological related studies. The present review reveals that Mallotus philippinensis is a valuable source of medicinally important natural molecules and provides convincing support for its future use in modern medicine.


Mallotus philippensis is a plant in the spurge family. It is known as the kamala tree or red kamala or kumkum tree , due to the fruit covering, which produces a red dye. However, it must be distinguished from kamala meaning "lotus" in many Indian languages, an unrelated plant, flower, and sometimes metonymic spiritual or artistic concept. Mallotus philippensis has many other local names.

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