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Toxic pictures produced by spider bites in Chile: latrodectism and loxoscelism. Latrodectism, produced by the bite of Latrodectus spiders, is worldwide distributed, occurs in hot seasons, and affects mostly men when carrying out agricultural activities. The main symptoms are muscular pain and tremors, profuse perspiration, increased lacrimal, nasal and salival secretions, and hypertension.

Symptoms last one week. Neostigmine is a very efficient drug in the treatment of this condition. Loxoscelism, caused by the bite of Loxosceles spiders, is worldwide distributed, affects individuals of all ages.

Both forms have been registered in all seasons, with a higher incidence in hot periods, and in bedrooms, when the person is sleeping or dressing. The cutaneous surface of limbs and face are most frequently affected.

Local clinical manifestations are pain, edema and livedoid plaque, most of which evolve into a necrotic scar in CL, whereas hematuria, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, fever and sensorial involvement characterize VCL. If visceral involvement does not appear within 24 hours, it is probable that the diagnosis corresponds to CL, with a good prognosis.

If a VCL patient survives 48 hours, the possibilities of recovery are high. Recibido el 25 de noviembre, Aceptado el 10 de marzo, No todas son peligrosas para la salud del hombre. En se registraron los primeros casos de latrodectismo en Chile El cuerpo de la hembra mide 1,,5 cm de largo y 3,,2 cm con las patas extendidas. Es de color negro aterciopelado, y en su abdomen, en la cara dorsal y en la cara ventral presenta manchas de color rojo.

La neostigmina se administra parenteralmente en dosis de 0,,0 mg cada 8 h, siendo muchas veces suficiente una sola dosis. Habitualmente bueno. En se publicaron los primeros casos de loxoscelismo en Chile 54 , El agente causal del loxoscelismo en Chile es L.

El cuerpo de la hembra mide mm de largo y 4,,5 cm con las patas extendidas. En 26 casos fue posible identificar como L. En casos se hizo en las primeras 12 h, en 74 entre 13 y 24 h y en 65 entre 25 y h. Manifestaciones locales que se presentaron en las primeras 48 h.

Manifestaciones generales que se registraron en las primeras 48 h. Bettini S, Maroli M. Venoms of Theridiidae, Genus Latrodectus. En: Bettini S, Ed. Arthropod Venoms. Maretic Z. Venoms of Theridiidae. Genus Latrodectus. Epidemiology of Envenomation, Symptomatology, Pathology and Treatment. Schenone H. Bol Chil Parasitol ; Olcese A, Schenone H.

Schenone H, Correa LE. Gajardo Tobar R. Latrodectismo: Experiencia en el hospital "Honorio Delgado". Muller GT. Black and brown widow spider bites in South Africa. A series of 45 cases. S Afr Med J ; Le latrodectisme dans le sud de la France. Une serie d'observations du centre anti-poisons de Marseille. La Presse medicale ; Vutchev D. A case of intoxication after a bite by Latrodectus tredecimguttatus.

Scand J Infect Dis ; Le latrodectisme a Madagascar. Med Trop France ; Latrodectus mactans black widow spider envenomation: an anusual cause for abdominal pain in pregnancy. Obst Gynecol USA ; Black widow spider Latrodectus mactans envenomation in a term pregnancy. Curr Surg ; Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; Jelinek GA.

Widow spider envenomation latrodectism : a world wide problem. Wilderness Environ Med ; 8: Miocardial damage after spider bite Latrodectus tredecimguttatus in a 16 years old patient. G Ital Cardiol ; Acute renal failure following latrodectism. Vet Hum Toxicol ; Miquel J. An Univ Chile ; 9: Algunas alteraciones cardiovasculares observadas en el latrodectismo. JAMA ; Latrodectismo y loxoscelismo en Chile.

Mem Inst Butantan ; Bol Vigil Epidemiol Chile ; Venoms of Scytodidae. Genus Loxosceles. En: Bettini S. Newlands G, Isaacson, Martindale C.

Loxoscelism in the Transvaal, South Africa. Comparison of enzymatic activity from three species of necrotising arachnids in Australia. Loxosceles rufescens, Badumna insignis and Lampona cylindrata. Toxicon ; An outbreak of venomous spider bites in a citrus grove. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Prats F, Schenone H. Nuevas consideraciones sobre loxoscelismo.

Schenone H, Prats F. Arachmidism by Loxosceles laeta. Report of 40 cases of necrotic arachnidism. Arch Dermatol ; Gajardo-Tobar R. Mi experiencia sobre loxoscelismo. Loxoscelismo en Chile.

Rev Chil Pediatr ; Medicina B Aires ; Zavaleta A. Bol Ofic Sanit Panamer ; Vellard J. El araneismo en Bolivia. A clinical and epidemiological study of Loxosceles spider envenoming in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological features of definitive and presumed loxoscelism in Sao Paulo, Brazil.


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