FINALITY OF PROPHETHOOD PDF

The principal charge leveled against the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, is that God save us , he repudiated the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, being the Khataman Nabiyyeen. This is an utterly false charge. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, has repeatedly affirmed in his writings that he believes that every word and vowel point of the Holy Quran is from God and that this is part of his faith. He was the first person in Islam who proclaimed that not one word of the Holy Quran is abrogated. He challenged those who believe that a certain number of verses of the Holy Quran have been abrogated, to come forth in opposition to his declaration and that he would establish that not a single word of the Holy Quran has been abrogated.

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It means that Prophet Muhammad s is the last prophet and Islam is the last divine religion and there will be no religion after it and its teachings and rules are valid forever.

Khatamiyya was always a clear and accepted belief among Muslims. As it was dealt as a certain belief among them it was not discussed as an independent issue in theology and Islamic theologians have proved it through narrative arguments. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21 century new discussions have been started about this issue, as Baha'i 's objections provoked theologians to defend this belief. In addition, the new approach of explaining revelation and prophethood , the issue of religious experience and revelation elevated the issue of Khatamiyya to one of the most important topics in theology.

Khatamiyya in Arabic is a derivative from "Khatm," which means the end. Khatam and Khatim both mean what ends something or what comes at the end or is the last. Some believe that Khatim means what ends and Khatam means a ring with engravings, which used as a seal. From the very beginning, the understanding of all Islamic sects form the concept of Khatamiyya was that Islam is the last divine religion, which must be the basis of human's faith and actions.

Its laws, which are unchangeable, are valid to the Day of Resurrection. Khatamiyya is an Islamic teaching presented in the Qur'an and hadiths ; thus it has a very long history in Islamic tradition. Although this issue is one of the most important theological issues and one can find implications about that in the works of many Islamic theologians, philosophers and mystics, it was not dealt with as an independent issue in early times. In late 20th century, two factors led to independent works about this topic:.

This new approach toward this issue, which was mostly influenced by the theory of "Religious Experience" began by Iqbal Lahuri. The efforts of contemporaneous theologians for studying the opinions of Iqbal Lahuri led to formation of a separated chapter in Islamic theology books and even independent works about this topic. Scholars such as Morteza Motahhari and 'Ali Shari'ati were among the first who talked about Lahuri's idea.

In Islamic theology, Khatamiyya is considered as an intra-religious issue, and no independent, meta-religious argument have been provided for it. The following intra-religious arguments have been offered for proving Khatamiyya:. The term of "Khatamiyya" is adopted from Qur'anic verses. The Qur'an 33 explicitly used the sobriquet "the final of prophets" Khatam al-Nabiyyin to address the Prophet Muhammad s. In addition to above-mentioned verse , there are set of verses which imply this notion, such as the verses that say Muhammad s is a prophet for all times and places, which consequently indicate that he is the last prophet.

From these verses the theologians concluded that Islam is the most complete and a universal religion. Islam and the Qur'an will not be abrogated or voided.

Therefore, Islam is the last divine religion and Prophet Muhammad s is the final prophet. Many hadiths have been narrated about Khatamiyya in both Shi'a and Sunni hadith sources. Moreover, in various parts of Nahj al-Balagha , Imam Ali a has pointed out that Prophet Muhammad s was the last prophet. In the first sermon Imam Ali a says, " Allah sent Muhammad for fulfilling His promise and for ending the chain of prophets …" [14].

Furthermore, another group of hadiths, which indicate that Islamic laws will not be abrogated and will last until the Day of Resurrection , confirm the notion of Khatamiyya.

Islamic philosophers have often discussed the topic of prophethood independently and provided rational arguments proving the necessity of of sending prophets by God. Within these discussions they implicitly or explicitly mentioned the subject of Khatamiyya as well.

Among Islamic philosophers Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi , with a Shi'a approach, interpreted Khatamiyya as the end of legislative revelations and the end of descent of the archangel of revelation.

He believed that Khatamiyya does not mean the end of divine arguments as the infallible Imams a are introduced by Prophet Muhammad s as authentic divine arguments. By differentiating between legislative prophethood and propagative prophethood, Sabzawari believed that ending the prophethood is about the legislative one. From his point of view, the Khatamiyya of Prophet Muhammad s has two aspects:.

Islamic mystics also believe in Khatamiyya of Prophet Muhammad s. Their interpretation of Khatamiyya is similar to those of Islamic philosophers; i. One of the most important discussions about Khatamiyya is answering the question why the chain of the prophets must end at a certain time and why Prophet Muhammad s must be last of them. According to some contemporary scholars, the question is best answered by suggesting that given His far-reaching wisdom and omniscience, God knows where He places His message [20] and where he ceases to send messages.

However, Muslim scholars, and in particular contemporary intellectuals, have provided different answers to the question. Here are some wisdom for the finality of prophethood:. The messages of prophets a before Prophet Muhammad s were distorted after a while. Thus, the divine wisdom required that another prophet be sent to people after the distortion of the previous prophet, so that the new prophet could call people to the right and clarify the distortions, putting the divine message back into the right track.

However, since God has guaranteed the protection of the Qur'an against distortions, there is no need to send another prophet after Muhammad s : "Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian" Qur'an 15 Divine religions were moving towards more perfection, with any new religion being more perfect than the previous ones, because of the constant perfection of the human understanding, knowledge, and disposition to receive more precise messages.

The perfection process continued until the emergence of Islam. This perfectness cannot be proved in rational terms; it can only be proved through an examination of a religion's principles of beliefs and ethics. In such terms, one can examine different divine religions with respect to monotheism , resurrection , ethical system, and social principles. In all these respects, Islam has offered the most perfect and the most comprehensive plans and instructions, in such a way that human material and spiritual needs and are both met.

One reason for new prophets being sent by God was the need for stating and propagating the details of divine rulings and the continuity of the relationship between God and people. In Islam, the need is met by the prophet s himself and the Infallible Imams a , and during the Occultation of the Twelfth Imam a , the elaboration of the religion, especially with respect to practical issues, is assigned to qualified scholars and mujtahids. Another factor contributing to the religion of the Prophet s being the final plan for the human happiness was that the rational capacities of people had remarkably evolved during the period of the Prophet s in comparison with previous periods.

Before this period, people were not sufficiently prepared to receive and understand a comprehensive plan. Thus, if such a comprehensive plan were sent to people from the beginning, it would be easily distorted or ignored, but this is in conflict with the wisdom behind the missions of prophets. Thus, a sufficiently long time had to pass from the beginning of the creation and less comprehensive plans had to be offered to people until they prepared for the reception of the final religion.

The Qur'an also refers to the rational development and disposition as well as knowledge of people at the time of the Prophet s in comparison with people at the time of previous prophets. It also points to their qualification to undertake certain religious responsibilities, such as enjoining the good and forbidding the evil.

It also refers to Muslims at the time of the Prophet s as the best people. In recent decades, in the wake of the intellectual and social developments and events, the issue of Khatamiyya was discussed from other perspectives.

Addressing the claims of new emerging sects, such as Ahmadiyya, Qadiyaniyya, Babism and Baha'i , about Khatamiyya Muslim scholars have explained and elaborated Khatamiyya more deeply.

Iqbal Lahuri was the first Muslim intellectual who discussed the issue with a new approach. He believed that Prophet Muhammad s elevated people to a level of intellect and knowledge that they can reach supernatural and divine guidance to attain salvation and happiness without a prophet's help; so there was no need to another prophet after Prophet Muhammad s.

Influenced by the theory of religious experience of Schleiermacher and William James, Iqbal believed that revelation is a kind of experience, and influenced by Bergson's philosophy of life, he introduced it as a matter of instinct. Accepting Auguste Conte's theory about stages of history, he believed that humankind after Prophet Muhammad s have reached the era of intellect and by the help of intuition they need not another prophet.

Afterward, some writers and scholars, such as Murtada Mutahhari , 'Ali Shari'ati and 'Abd al-Karim Surush criticized his opinions and explained their own opinions in this regard. Baha'i believe that the word "Khatam" in the 40th verse of Qur'an 33 means "ring" and the verse only means that Prophet Muhammad s was an adornment of the prophets not the last of them. In answer to the question, it is said that in Arabic "Khatam" means what ends something and ring was called khatam in Arabic as Arabs used it to end their letters with their rings as a seal; so the giving interpretation is against the denotation of the verse and hence is invalid.

Another question raised by Baha'i is that the same verse says Prophet Muhammad s is "Khatam al-Nabiyyin" the last of the prophets and not "Khatam al-Mursalin" the last of the apostle ; so there might be another apostle after Prophet Muhammad s. This question is also answered by this fact that every apostle Rasul is a prophet Nabi and there was no prophet who was not an apostle of God. Therefore, the last of the prophets means the last of the apostles as well.

Providing evidence from the Qur'an, some have claimed that Prophet Muhammad s was sent to a particular region, [30] i. They tried to deny the generality of his mission as it is the other aspect of Khatamiyya. In answer to this question it must be said that according to different verses of the Qur'an, the mission of Prophet Muhammad s had various stages. First he was ordered to call his family to Islam, then the people of his town, then the people of Hijaz and so on.

Therefore, one can not argue that according to a verse of the Qur'an he was only sent to particular people and not all the world. Some of those who denied Khatamiyya argued that the 35th verse of Qur'an 7 implies the possibility of sending another prophet by God in the future. In answer, it is said that the verse means God has sent prophets and religions for guiding people.

Moreover, the present tense in Arabic Muduri' is not always used for future meaning. And above all, the verse expresses a conditional situation which does not mean it will happen.

Here is the verse: "O Children of Adam! If there come to you apostles from among ourselves, recounting to you My signs, then those who are Godwary and righteous will have no fear, nor will they grieve".

Another question about Khatamiyya is how Prophet Muhammad s is the last prophet while Prophet Jesus a and Khidr a will return to the world at the End of the Time. However, the answer seems clear as Khatamiyya means there will be no new prophet with new religion which abrogate Islam. It is reported in hadiths about this incident that they return as Muslims and practice according to Islam. According to Islamic texts, Imamate does not contradict the notion of Khatamiyya, is fact, Imamate is the continuation of prophethood.

From the beginning of Islam until now, there was no disagreement that there is no contradiction between them. The main disagreement was refusing the Infallible Imams a as the successors of Prophet Muhammad s. As no one has claimed that Shi'a interpretation of Imamate is not compatible with Khatamiyya, no independent study was done about this subject.

However, in recent years and after the emergence of a new approach towards Khatamiyya, some Shi'a and Sunni scholars have claimed that Shi'a viewpoint about Imamate contradicts Khatamiyya. Jump to: navigation , search. Qom: [n. Musnad b. Beirut: [n. Cairo: [n. Tehran: [n. Muslim b. Categories : Islamic beliefs Issues in Islamic theology. Hidden categories: Pages with editorial box Articles with quality and priority assessment A grade priority articles B grade quality articles A grade priority and b grade quality articles Articles with appropriate links Articles that do not need photo Articles with category Articles that do not need infobox Articles with navbox Articles with redirects Articles with references.

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DANIEL TABAK ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS PDF

Man and Universe

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah has full knowledge of all things. Explaining the high status of the Holy Prophet sa , the Promised Messiah as writes:. Malfuzat , vol. The Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, surpassed all other Prophets in all noble traits—purity of heart, clear conviction, chastity, modesty, veracity, fairness, trust, and love and devotion to God—and he was the best, most complete, the most exalted, most distinct, and purest of all the Prophets. That is why, of all the Prophets, the Holy Prophet sa was blessed the most by God with the perfume of special perfections. His heart was more magnanimous, more pure, more innocent, more enlightened and more loving than anyone before or after him. That is why it [his heart] was deemed fit to receive the divine revelation that is more powerful, more complete, more exalted, and more perfect than all the past or future revelations, and is the biggest and widest mirror to manifest the divine attributes.

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Finality of Prophethood

Finality of Prophethood. This article is divided into different sections for better and clear understanding. A Lexicographical definitions. B Proof from Quran in light of classical Mufasireen. C Proof from overwhelming Sahih Ahadith.

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Khatam an-Nabiyyin

We have said that despite the differences in details all Prophets have delivered the same message and belonged to the same ideological school. The principles and teachings of this school were explained to human society gradually in proportion to its development till the humanity reached the stage when the entire teachings in a comprehensive form were presented. At this point Prophethood came to an end. The Holy Prophet, Muhammad bin Abdullah Peace be on him and his progeny was the person through whom the complete ideology was conveyed, and the Holy Qur'an was the last celestial Book.

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