ECHIUM AMOENUM PDF

Search by size, origins, color, cultural needs, etc. Site Map. Retail Locator. Weather Station. Note: This plant is not currently for sale. This is an archive page preserved for informational use.

Author:Bakus Grohn
Country:Guyana
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Travel
Published (Last):25 December 2017
Pages:425
PDF File Size:5.19 Mb
ePub File Size:15.20 Mb
ISBN:359-1-48799-419-9
Downloads:72098
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Taukree



The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated.

For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from biological system oxidative stress. Mey in humans. A group of 38 healthy subjects was invited to use the E. Blood samples before and after entering the study were measured for lipid peroxidation level LPO , total antioxidant capacity TAC and total thiol SH molecules. A significant reduction of blood LPO Blood TAC 1.

In conclusion, this antioxidative stress potential of E. In recent years the importance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of many human disorders has been confirmed, thus use of this plant as a dietary supplement is highly recommended. Free radicals, like reactive oxygen species ROS , nitrogen RNS and chlorine RCS , are normal by-products of metabolism and they are introduced into the body from outside sources of harmful chemicals in the environment, unhealthy foods, stress, certain drugs, cigarette smoke, etc.

Increasing the intake of antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and protect the body from cell damage. In the body, oxidative stress results from the imbalance between the extent of ROS formation and the antioxidant defense mechanisms. Links between oxidative stress and adverse health effects have been suggested for several groups of diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological as well as for the general aging process.

Such adverse effects are mediated by free radical damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Protection from damage occurs through the action of multiple antioxidants, some endogenously produced and some provided through dietary intake 1 — 3.

It is believed that medicinal plants are a potential source of antioxidants and ROS scavenger molecules 4. Mey that has been shown as a rich source of antioxidants, like rosmarinic acid RA and flavonoids. This plant belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is a biennial or perennial herb indigenous to the narrow zone of northern part of Iran and Caucasus, where it grows at highlands at the altitude ranging from 60 to m 5.

There has been an increased interest in Echium species, including E. The flowers of this plant have been used as demulcent, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anxiolytic, and sedative in folk medicine of Iran 5 — 7. Anxiolytic effect of the flower of this plant has been shown in two separate experimental studies in mice 8 , 9. In Western medicine, the flowers and the leaves of borage have been similarly used as antifebrile, antidepressant, anxiolytic, ameliorant of heart and pulmonary disturbances, poultice for inflammatory swellings, diuretic, laxative, emollient and demulcent, and recently as a possible protective factor against cancer 10 — Extract of this plant has been shown to contain flavonoids, saponins, unsaturated terpenoids and sterols 8.

Phytochemical studies on E. The antioxidant properties of flavonoids 16 , 17 and RA 18 — 22 have been well established. A clinical trial study with a total of 38 subjects was designed. Subjects were volunteer students of Arak University of Medical Sciences, located in the south-west of Iran, who all lived in the university dormitory.

Subjects were selected on a simple random basis from volunteers. The study was conducted in complete accordance with the declaration of Helsinki. All participants were provided with specific written consents obtained prior to entrance into the study. Each individual was extensively interviewed by a specialized physician who filled in a structured questionnaire specifying gender, smoking, dietary habits, sports habits and history of special disease, before obtaining blood.

Then the subjects were administered E. The dose was selected on the basis of a pilot study and traditional use information. A supervisor carefully checked to make sure that the volunteers were taking the decoction properly. Demographic characteristics of the subjects are presented in Table 1. Flowers of E. A total of g air-dried flowers of E.

Blood samples were collected 12 h after the last dose of decoction was taken. Total sulfhydryl content was determined in plasma by the method of Hu A volume of plasma 0. The final volume of the reaction mixture was made up to 4. The test tube was capped, and the color was developed for 15—20 min, followed by centrifugation at g for 10 min at ambient temperature. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at nm. TBA 0. LPO adducts were extracted by n -butanol and absorbance was measured at nm Paired t -test was used to analyze the significance of differences observed between study groups.

F -test was used to determine the normal distribution of variances between groups. Effect of the consumption of E. P -value is represented in graph. Significance difference in P -value is represented in graph. In the body, antioxidants act as free radical scavengers and thus protect cells from being exposed to free radicals and further cellular damage. This is the mechanism by which they protect the human body from several diseases attributed to the reactions of radicals.

Numerous substances have been suggested to act as antioxidants in this plant. Various phenolic antioxidants such as flavonoids, RA, tannins, coumarins, xanthenes and, more recently, procyanidins have been shown to scavenge radicals in a dose-dependent manner 26 , In addition, flavonoids and RA have been introduced as the main constituents of E.

The antioxidant potential of flavonoids has been well established 22 , Flavonoids can highly scavenge most types of oxidizing molecules, including singlet oxygen and various free radicals, and thus act indirectly as an efficient antioxidant They can also act directly by suppressing ROS formation RA, the other important constituent of this plant, is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.

It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. There are a number of reports on the antioxidative activities of RA which all confirm that RA has strong antioxidant activity even higher than vitamin E. In this regard, the reported positive effects of RA include enhancement of superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging 20 , inhibition of both low-density lipoprotein 21 and oil oxidation 19 , suppression of arachidonate metabolism formation 31 , inhibition of hemolysis 32 , and having hyaluronidase and h -hexosaminidase activities In addition, RA inhibited lung injury in mice that is regularly induced by diesel exhaust particles.

RA showed this by reduction of pro-inflammatory molecule expression and enhanced antioxidative activity In conclusion, the present findings well indicate that E.

This potential of E. In recent years the importance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of many human disorders has been highlighted 35 — 44 , thus use of this plant as a dietary supplement is highly recommended 45 , Trials to establish efficacy and optimum dosage of the present herbal product for treating human chronic diseases with pathophysiology of oxidative stress are essential.

This work was supported by a grant from Arak University of Medical Sciences. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

For reprints and all correspondence: Prof. Received Oct 2; Accepted May 4. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from biological system oxidative stress.

Mey, human, oxidative stress. Introduction Free radicals, like reactive oxygen species ROS , nitrogen RNS and chlorine RCS , are normal by-products of metabolism and they are introduced into the body from outside sources of harmful chemicals in the environment, unhealthy foods, stress, certain drugs, cigarette smoke, etc.

Subjects and Methods Study Design A clinical trial study with a total of 38 subjects was designed. Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study subjects.

Open in a separate window. Plant Material Flowers of E. Statistics Paired t -test was used to analyze the significance of differences observed between study groups. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. The Consumption of E. RA Reduced Pro-inflammatory Molecule Expression and Enhanced Antioxidative Activity RA, the other important constituent of this plant, is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.

References 1. Cochrane CG. Cellular injury by oxidant. Am J Med. Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review. Med Sci Monit.

CHARLES DICKENS SZP REMNYEK PDF

Echium amoenum (Red Feathers)

Mini Review. Author Affiliations. Received: July 22, Published: August 02, DOI:

GOST 5781 PDF

Echium ‘Red Feathers’ (Echium amoenum)

The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from biological system oxidative stress.

DISRAELI MAUROIS PDF

Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research

Echium amoenum Red Feathers is short lived perennial forming a compact clump of hairy lance-shaped leaves topped by striking russet-red flower spikes from late spring to frost. Remove spent flower spikes to promote new flower spikes and extend the blooming season of the plant. After flowering, Red Feathers makes seeds and dies. However, it self-seeds readily, maintaining its striking presence in the garden. Undemanding and drought tolerant, Red Feathers grows well in warm, dry areas and is perfect for water-wise gardens. Buy Echium amoenum Red Feathers. While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates.

Related Articles