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The limitations in performing functional activities in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy are important.
The use of virtual reality systems is a new treatment approach that reinforces task-oriented motor learning. The purpose of this guide is to study the impact of the use of virtual reality systems in the improvement and acquisition of functional skills, and to evaluate the scientific evidence to determine the strength of recommendation of such interventions..
All available full-text articles, regardless of their methodology, were included. An assessment was made of methodological quality, the level of scientific evidence, and the strength of recommendations using the tools: Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies and the Guidelines for Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies and U.
Preventive Services Task Force. Finally, we included 13 articles and 97 participants were recruited. We obtained significant improvements in outcome measures that assessed postural control and balance, upper limb function, the selective joint control, and gait.. The guide has some limitations: the limited number of patients enrolled, clinical diversity and age range, as well as the methodological quality of existing trials.
Virtual reality is a promising tool in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy. There is strong scientific evidence of an acceptable recommendation for the use of virtual reality systems in the treatment of cerebral palsy..
El empleo de sistemas de realidad virtual constituye un nuevo enfoque de tratamiento que refuerza el aprendizaje motor orientado a tareas. La realidad virtual es una prometedora herramienta en el tratamiento de ni??
Todos los derechos reservados.. Cerebral palsy CP is described as a range of disorders of motor and postural development that cause functional limitations attributed to non-progressive lesions arising in the developing fetal or infant brain.
Until recently, there were no standardised methods for classifying cerebral palsy by subtype and severity of motor impairments. It describes 5 levels ranging from level I, indicating children with minimal or no mobility dysfunction compared to the general population, to level V, including children who are totally dependent and need help moving around. The current survival probability is high, even for the most severe forms of CP, which results in increasing financial costs. A study in the USA estimated that direct costs physician visits, hospital stays, assistive devices, and home modifications and indirect costs impact on work productivity of CP in reached Skill development in children with CP is restricted by multiple factors that limit voluntary movements, whether manipulatory or mobility-related.
These limitations are accompanied by postural constraints. Normal postural control requires combining sensory information from the visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular systems that provide information on the position and movement of the body and its surroundings. In normal postural control, this information must also be coordinated with motor actions.
In the production of coordinated movement, proprioceptive feedback is critical for controlling muscles, limb segments during multi-joint movement, and movement trajectories. It also provides internal representations of the body that are essential for the acquisition and adaptation of motor skills. Postural control in patients with CP depends on the capacities of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems.
Their neuromuscular system has a restricted capacity for coordinating muscles in postural synergies, which gives rise to multiple dysfunctions in sequencing, in activation time for postural response, and in adapting posture to the setting. The main musculoskeletal dysfunction in these patients is body alignment. Lack of proper alignment between body segments leads to a change in body position with respect to the centre of gravity and the support base.
As a result, these patients are unable to develop appropriate locomotion strategies. Virtual reality VR systems for rehabilitating children and adolescents with CP constitute a new treatment tool with multiple functional objectives. VR is a computer technology providing artificial sensory feedback so as to allow individuals to experience activities and events similar to those they might encounter in real life.
The defining features of VR systems are interaction and immersion. A high degree of presence is required in order to manipulate the cognitive processes involved in motor control. VR has three key elements that are active in motor learning: - Repetition. Plasticity is use-dependent. Repetition results in better learning of motor and functional skills. Sensory feedback. Multisensorial stimulation is an essential part of rehabilitation for children with CP, since effects of the disease are systemic.
Neural networks reach their full developmental state when patients work using different channels. Motivation of the subject. Subjects are motivated when the activities in their therapy programmes are presented in an enjoyable, attractive way.
In paediatric neurorehabilitation, establishing flexible and personalised intervention programmes is crucial. VR can provide such personalised and flexible treatment by allowing us to integrate the child's preferences in the intervention programme, improve attention and motivation, and increase sensory feedback. These techniques increase engagement in therapy, which in turn results in more successful learning.
The techniques also enable the development of telerehabilitation platforms through which therapists can monitor the patient's progress. One of the main problems in neurorehabilitation is application of the acquired skills to real-life situations. This is one of the most difficult objectives of these interventions, and strategies to maximise transferral therefore form part of the treatment plan.
VR is designed to simulate real situations. It has a high degree of ecological validity the extent to which an experiment reflects the real world , and this increases the probability that the acquired skills will transfer to the real world. VR offers safety in realistic environments that may be dangerous for children with CP in real life, thereby helping them develop confidence and self-efficacy in a safe environment and preparing them to approach the task in the real world.
VR systems can be grouped in three major classes according to the type of human-computer interaction: gesture-based, feedback-focused, and haptic-based or based on touch. It can be used to design interactive exercise programmes for specific joints, combined movements, or the whole body.
Since it does not require any additional devices, it provides complete freedom of movement. Immersive VR system based on the movements of the user, who is transported to a virtual setting. This VR system enables free active movements without requiring any additional devices.
Vivid Group has developed different software titles for the Mandala GX system: 5 entertainment titles, 7 educational titles, 9 sport titles, and 6 virtual theatre games. A multi-player mode is available. The system includes a room with a floor and 3 walls 1 frontal and 2 lateral onto which high-resolution 3D images are projected.
This creates the illusion of being inside the virtual setting. CAVE is also an immersive VR system, and it is equipped with a device that measures postural reactivity by registering body movement. It can be used by several players. This is an immersive system that projects stereoscopic images such that they occupy the patient's entire field of view.
The patient is placed on a force platform in the centre of the virtual room. The data registered by BNAVE are head movements, centre of pressure of the foot, and electromyographic signals. This is the gold standard of immersive VR systems since it projects very high resolution images at close proximity to the eyes.
This way, the patient has the sensation of being part of the virtual scene. Haptic systems. These systems use robots to create interaction between the user and the virtual reality setting. Both can be integrated with VR since they present virtual locomotion scenarios displayed on a screen in front of the patient. Low-cost systems.
The following systems have been used in neurorehabilitation: 1. The Nintendo Wii video game console is an interactive motion-based device.
Players are represented by avatars located within the virtual environment. A remote monitoring tool held in the hand measures the user's movements and transfers them to the screen.
This tool detects changes in speed and orientation, and the system adjusts feedback according to these parameters. The Wii remote control provides haptic feedback, while the game display provides visual and auditory feedback. Wii has a multi-player mode and different levels of difficulty. It employs a motion sensor that monitors the user's entire body.
The purpose of this clinical practice guide is to study the impact of using different VR systems to instil and improve functional skills in children and adolescents with CP, and evaluate available scientific evidence to determine the grades of recommendation for such interventions.
We conducted the literature search with no language restrictions for all articles published up to March and dating back to the year Sources of information and keywords employed are listed below. Search strategy: 1 cerebral palsy, 2 virtual reality, 3 cerebral palsy and virtual reality, 4 balance, 5 cerebral palsy and balance, 6 postural control, 7 cerebral palsy and postural control, 8 virtual reality and balance, 9 virtual reality and postural control, 10 somatosensory development, 11 cerebral palsy and somatosensory development, and 12 motor learning.
Additionally, we tracked the references cited by different trials and review articles 9—11,16,33,34 that might be relevant for the purpose of this guide. We contacted 2 authors to gain access to 2 articles 19,35 that were not available in full-text format in the databases consulted for this study. The purpose of this clinical practice guide was to collect studies with a high level of evidence. However, we included all articles addressing interventions in children with CP regardless of the level of evidence, since this topic is relatively new and the number of articles in the literature is low.
All articles were reviewed and assessed critically using the appropriate tools. We included all interventions in the target population that involved either isolated use of VR systems for functional skill training, or a combination of a VR system and a complementary treatment.
In this case we evaluated the improvement in performance after combined use. Features of gait: spatial-temporal variables speed, length of stride, symmetry , 1-Minute Walk Test, 48 and 6-Minute Walk Test. Features of static position weight distribution, joint alignment, symmetry. Range of joint motion: goniometry. Imaging-based diagnosis techniques: functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI.
Two authors E. Trials selected by each author were compared. The authors discussed any trials on which they did not agree. Articles that potentially met inclusion criteria were later gathered in full-text format. This was helpful for selecting the best evidence for use in decision-making in clinical practice.
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