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The broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture worldwide. There has been ongoing controversy regarding the possible adverse effects of glyphosate on the environment and on human health.

Reports of neural defects and craniofacial malformations from regions where glyphosate-based herbicides GBH are used led us to undertake an embryological approach to explore the effects of low doses of glyphosate in development. Alterations on neural crest markers were later correlated with deformities in the cranial cartilages at tadpole stages.

Embryos injected with pure glyphosate showed very similar phenotypes. Moreover, GBH produced similar effects in chicken embryos, showing a gradual loss of rhombomere domains, reduction of the optic vesicles, and microcephaly. This suggests that glyphosate itself was responsible for the phenotypes observed, rather than a surfactant or other component of the commercial formulation. Therefore, we conclude that the phenotypes produced by GBH are mainly a consequence of the increase of endogenous retinoid activity.

This is consistent with the decrease of Sonic hedgehog Shh signaling from the embryonic dorsal midline, with the inhibition of otx2 expression and with the disruption of cephalic neural crest development.

The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to GBH in agricultural fields.

View Author Information. Cite this: Chem. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Suvi Ruuskanen, Miia J. Effects of parental exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides on embryonic development and oxidative status: a long-term experiment in a bird model. Chronic exposure to glyphosate induces transcriptional changes in honey bee larva: A toxicogenomic study.

Environmental Pollution , , Yahfoufi, David Bai, Sana N. Morris, Husam M. Toxicology , , Disruption of cytochrome P enzymes in the liver and small intestine in chicken embryos in ovo exposed to glyphosate. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 27 14 , The role of teratogens in neural crest development.

The surfactant polyethoxylated tallowamine POEA reduces lifespan and inhibits fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster- In vivo and in vitro study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , , Chemicals: pesticides.

Gut microbiota and neurological effects of glyphosate. NeuroToxicology , 75 , Effects of chronic glyphosate exposure to pregnant mice on hepatic lipid metabolism in offspring. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces sub-lethal effects in early life stages and liver cell line of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Aquatic Toxicology , , Lajmanovich, Paola M. Attademo, Candela S. Simoniello, Carlina L. Colussi, Ana P. Cuzziol Boccioni, Mirna Sigrist. First evaluation of novel potential synergistic effects of glyphosate and arsenic mixture on Rhinella arenarum Anura: Bufonidae tadpoles.

Heliyon , 5 10 , e Oluwaseun Babalola, J. Christoff Truter, Johannes H. Journal of Applied Toxicology , 39 9 , Fate, eco-toxicological characteristics, and treatment processes applied to water polluted with glyphosate: A critical review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology , 49 16 , Science of The Total Environment , , Business and Human Rights Journal , 4 02 , Acute exposure of glyphosate-based herbicide induced damages on common carp organs via heat shock proteins-related immune response and oxidative stress.

Toxin Reviews , , Glyphosate induces toxicity and modulates calcium and NO signaling in zebrafish embryos. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , 4 , Siano, Nilda R. Marsili, Agustina V. Valle, F. Mello, R. Alves-Balvedi, L. Rodrigues, L. Glyphosate detection: methods, needs and challenges. Environmental Chemistry Letters , 17 1 , Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide functionalized with MnFe2O4 and supported on activated carbon for glyphosate adsorption in fixed bed column.

Process Safety and Environmental Protection , , How glyphosate and its associated acidity affect early development in zebrafish Danio rerio. PeerJ , 7 , e Military Medical Science Letters , 87 4 , Integrin targeting of glyphosate and its cell adhesion modulation effects on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells revealed by label-free optical biosensing.

Detection of glyphosate residues in companion animal feeds. Lazzari, Fernando J. Glyphosate impairs learning in Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae at field-realistic doses. The Journal of Experimental Biology , 20 , jeb Pagano, Jorge A. Zavala, Walter M. Glyphosate affects the larval development of honey bees depending on the susceptibility of colonies. Latin American contributions to the neural crest field.

Mechanisms of Development , , Burns, Kristin Conway, Erin M. Bell, Patricia Stewart, Peter Langlois,. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene , 15 9 , Nutrients , 10 9 , Repetti, Luisina D. Demonte, Jorgelina Varayoud, Enrique H. Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in Wistar rats.

Archives of Toxicology , 92 8 , Cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood cultures of Chaetophractus villosus exposed in vivo to a glyphosate formulation Roundup. Evaluation of disruption of sediment connectivity and herbicide transport across a slope by grass strips using a magnetic iron oxide tracer.

Soil and Tillage Research , , Commercially formulated glyphosate can kill non-target pollinator bees under laboratory conditions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata , 8 , Re-registration Challenges of Glyphosate in the European Union. Adsorption performance and mechanism of magnetic reduced graphene oxide in glyphosate contaminated water.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 25 21 ,

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Toxicity of three glyphosate formulations to Aphanius iberus [2003]

The broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture worldwide. There has been ongoing controversy regarding the possible adverse effects of glyphosate on the environment and on human health. Reports of neural defects and craniofacial malformations from regions where glyphosate-based herbicides GBH are used led us to undertake an embryological approach to explore the effects of low doses of glyphosate in development. The treated embryos were highly abnormal with marked alterations in cephalic and neural crest development and shortening of the anterior-posterior A-P axis. Alterations on neural crest markers were later correlated with deformities in the cranial cartilages at tadpole stages.

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Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment. Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placentalcells. Time- and dose-dependent effects of Roundup on human embryonic and placental cells. Glyphosate in theenvironment. Water, Air andSoilPollution, v. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. Toxicology in Vitro, v.

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