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PL EN. Search Browse About. Article details. Link to site. Sztuka i Dokumentacja. Article title. Edward Karolczuk. Full texts: Download. Title variants. Contradictions in the Functioning of Athenian Democracy.
Languages of publication. Contemporary advocates of the democratic system often refer to the Athenian democracy functioning in ancient times. While speaking about democracy, they often overlook social conflicts affecting its emergence. However, one of the main reasons determining its development was an interest in the use of demos the people in the fight between the competing social groups of the aristocracy and oligarchy and of the participation of demos in wars waged.
Thus, democracy was both a form and a plane for the clash of interests between the people and the oligarchy. The latter tried also to use democratic institutions for their own good. Although the origin of Athenian democracy is attributed to the reforms of Cleisthenes, in fact its rise was the effect of a complex process.
His reforms prevented a direct clash between the people and the oligarchy, which gained a strong position after the reforms of Solon and saved the aristocracy from the distribution of their land. Therefore, the democratic system didn't mean widespread consensus and harmony, but only introduced a new way of putting an end to the fiercest and the bloodiest social struggles.
When in B. C Cleisthenes introduced popular vote, it by no means aimed at contradicting conflicts dividing the society of that time, but was about ending them in a peaceful way and finding rules for solving social problems that would be acceptable for the majority of citizens. The struggle between demos and the aristocracy and oligarchy took place throughout the whole lifetime of the democracy and influenced its defeat.
The relationship between democracy and social struggle is still an issue of considerable controversy. Contrary to the popular idea of the functioning of Athenian democracy, the majority of officeholders were selected by lot and nor elected.
It was regarded as an expression of the divine will and the equality of all citizens and incompetence was counterbalanced by other virtues.
The contradictions of this system are visible also in the functioning of the people's courts. Politicians' remuneration was varied with regard to different political figures and office holders and in different periods and corruption was a structural element of Athenian democracy. Physical description. Ludwik Piotrowicz. Davies, John Kenyon. Demokracja w Grecji klasycznej. Engels, Fryderyk.
Hansen, Mognes Herman. Struktura, zasady i ideologia. Ryszard Kulesza. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo DiG, Dzieje, t. Seweryn Hammer. Kochan, Jerzy. Jerzy Schnayder. Kurowicki, Jan. Figury i maski w praktykach ideologicznych.
Mouffe, Chantal. Paradoks demokracji. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Maciej Kropiwnicki. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. List o widowiskach. Wojna peloponeska. Kazimierz Kumaniecki. Vernant, Jean-Pierre. Document Type. Publication order reference.
The good man vs. the good citizen in Aristotle’s Politics
The journal content is indexed in CrossCheck , the CrossRef initiative to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism. A comic quality calls, in his opinion, to lower emotions, it throws human mind out of balance and undermines the prevailing order of values. The philosopher associates a laughter with the feeling of envy phtonos , which comes down to the joy of humiliating of someone weaker. The comic envy - as opposed to passive jealousy - almost automatically leads to the activity, to the enhancement of humiliation. Laughter is caused according to Plato by a defect resulting from the ignorance about himself. The key feature of the comic situation is the asymmetry between the victim's weakness and the strength of a laughing person. Plato's concept of laughter turns out to be one-sided, when we compare it with "laughter of Democritus" which serves as a therapeutic and catharctic means.