Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The neglected tropical diseases NTDs are the most common infections of the world's poorest people living in Africa, Asia, and the Americas [1]. The NTDs differ significantly in their prevalence and disease burden according to their geographic and regional presence. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the prevalence, distribution, and disease burden of the NTDs in India and South Asia, focusing on aspects particular to the region.

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When referencing the environment, there are several diseases that could result from contamination in some way. Waterborne diseases, in particular, are a great example. Typically, many develop from human and animal waste. What is concerning is clear water can still contain pollutants. For instance, water can contain metal, which can lead to organ damage and birth defects. However, each disease can produce different symptoms and can last longer than others. In addition, individuals receive specific treatments based on the disease.

Therefore, it is extremely important to receive early treatment. Although it is categorized as extremely rare, cholera should not be taken lightly. It is so serious that healthy individuals can die in a matter of hours. What begins as an infection within the small intestines, results in severe diarrhea and dehydration and can lead to shock and seizures. Cholera is mostly present in areas such as Africa, Asia, and Hati and affects Individuals who live in crowded conditions.

In order to prevent waterborne diseases, specifically cholera, it is important to continue to improve sanitation throughout the world. Amoebiasis can be described as a parasitic infection that affects the colon and is obtained through contaminated food and water.

Typically, this infection is most prevalent in tropical areas. Affected individuals may experience symptoms including fever, bloody stools, and nausea and vomiting. However, when referencing amoebiasis, not all individuals who are affected become sick and most symptoms begin within two to 15 days. Therefore, it is important to monitor symptoms closely.

To prevent amoebiasis, individuals can wash fruits and vegetables before eating, drink bottled water, and limit dairy products.

Hepatitis A caused by the hepatitis A virus and can be contracted from the stool of another individual, contaminated water, and physical contact with an infected person. An affected individual may experience diarrhea, dark urine, and abdominal pain. Although it differs for each individual, the illness can last from anywhere from two weeks to three months.

Therefore, it is important to visit a doctor and receive treatment if necessary. In order to prevent hepatitis A, individuals should avoid eating raw oysters and shellfish and individuals should get vaccinated. Malaria is a significant water born illness in terms of human-disease interaction. It is spread by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitos infected with the malaria parasite. Symptoms of this disease include high fevers, violent shakes, intense flu-like symptoms, and if left untreated death.

According to the CDC, million people became ill due to the Anopheles mosquito in Of those million, , people were unable to beat this treatable disease and lost their lives. The majority of recorded deaths were children in the African region. Every year travelers go on vacation to sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia and put themselves at risk of contracting malaria and bringing it back home with them.

As a result, there are up to 1, documented cases of Malaria in the US every year. Treatment includes any one of the antimalarial drugs on the market today. However, it is important for physicians to determine where and when the disease was contracted in order to ensure the parasite is not immune to the drugs prescribed.

Typhoid and Paratyphoid fever are bacterial diseases that spread through the ingestion of feces particles. Those who are currently ill are able to spread the disease and one in twenty people who recover are still carriers of the disease. Typhoid fever is preventable by means of vaccination whereas paratyphoid fever is not preventable.

The distinction between the two diseases comes down to the type of bacteria ingested. Those who travel to countries such as India, Bangladesh, or Pakistan should take extreme care in ensuring their drinking water goes through proper sanitation, the most common form of contraction.

Giardiasis is an infection caused by the parasitic organism Giardia that lives in the digestive tract. Giardia causes intestinal distress in the form of extremely severe diarrhea leading to deadly dehydration. Symptoms typically take anywhere from one to three weeks to develop with the infection lasting anywhere from two to six weeks; those with a weaker immune system may experience a longer period of symptoms.

Giardia is one of the most common waterborne infections in the United States and can be found in every state. To minimize the risk of Giardia infection, avoid swimming in and drinking questionable sources of water in addition to washing hands after using the restroom. If Giardia is contracted it can be treated with a range of medications from a healthcare provider. Crypto causes watery diarrhea in the host as well as symptoms that go along with that such as cramps and dehydration. After exposure to Crypto, it typically takes anywhere from two to ten days for symptoms to appear.

Crypto can be found in every region throughout the United States as well as the world. The most common way for Crypto to be contracted is through the accidental ingestion of recreational water, for example, pool water. Crypto is known to spread through this outlet because a unique outer covering that has a naturally high ability to withstand sanitation by chlorination. Treatment for Crypto is not usually necessary, a healthy immune system with see symptoms lasting one to two weeks before getting better.

However, it is recommended to stay hydrated and avoid consuming things that contain diuretics such as caffeine; over the counter, anti-diarrhea medicines are also available. Although we advocate for safe, adequate water, we still struggle to do so. With the help of WDPB, we can now track waterborne disease, investigate causes, and work towards prevention. While this is a step in the right direction, nationally, individuals need to recognize the severity of waterborne illnesses.

Therefore, individuals must work together and practice basic hygiene to provide adequate sanitation. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A caused by the hepatitis A virus and can be contracted from the stool of another individual, contaminated water, and physical contact with an infected person.

Malaria Malaria is a significant water born illness in terms of human-disease interaction. What is currently being done to prevent waterborne diseases?


Perhimpunan Peneliti Hati Indonesia (PPHI)

Ikatan Ahli di Jakarta, Indonesia. Kramat Raya No. Ikatan Ahli. Keanggotaan untuk Ina ASL terbuka untuk semua dokter yang tertarik dengan penyakit hepatologi dan hepatobilier. Sampai saat ini, Ina ASL memiliki lebih dari anggota dari semua pusat medis utama di 19 provinsi di Indonesia, yang terdiri dari dokter, dokter anak, ahli patologi, ahli bedah dan spesialis lainnya yang tertarik dengan penyakit hati.

BS 6746C PDF

Amebiasis Hati


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