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Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
The declaration and fight for independence — was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until , culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration , mainly Italians and Spaniards , radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century.
Currently they are ranked 61st in the world. She was overthrown in by a U. Several of the junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a developing country and ranks 48th on the Human Development Index , the second highest in Latin America after Chile.
The description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language ; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian.
The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata and " made of silver" is said plateado and prateado.
Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend , widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina  and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'.
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Europeans first arrived in the region with the voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in and Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,  the May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta , a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists —a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence. The Battle of Cepeda , fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution , with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.
As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the Battle of Cepeda. Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in , ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies.
The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest  developed nation  in the world.
Between and the so-called Conquest of the Desert occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border,  and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples,  distributing them among the members of the Sociedad Rural Argentina , financiers of the expeditions.
He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression. His liberation was forced by a massive popular demonstration , and he went on to win the election. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full employment.
The economy, however, began to decline in because of over-expenditure. She pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in ,  and developed an unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society. In the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in an ill-fated attempt to kill the President. A few months later, during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and went into exile in Spain. The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu , proscribed Peronism and banned all of its manifestations; nevertheless, Peronists kept an organized underground.
Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the following elections. The Dirty War involved state terrorism in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal economic policies of the regime. Most were victims of state terrorism.
The guerrillas' number of victims are nearly between military and police officials  and up to civilians. The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as in some senses the long political war started in Trade unionists were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries as early as , and individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in In , popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo.
The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu. He expelled Montoneros from the party  and they became once again a clandestine organization. They initiated the National Reorganization Process , often shortened to Proceso. The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to be associated with the left-wing.
By the end of Montoneros had lost near 2, members; by , the ERP was completely defeated. A severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in , which was quickly annihilated, ending the guerrilla threat. Nevertheless, the junta stayed in power. In , the then head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri , authorised the invasion of the British territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands.
Rioting on the streets of Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation stood down. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the election. Menem embraced neo-liberal policies:  a fixed exchange rate , business deregulation , privatizations and dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while.
The Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. The December riots forced him to resign. By the late the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward.
Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies  laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth. Jorge Rafael Videla , who had led the repression during the Dirty War , was sentenced to life in a civilian prison in under de Kirchner's administration; he later died in prison in On 22 November , after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October , Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect.
Macri is the first democratically elected non- radical or peronist president since In April , the Macri Government introduced austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and public deficits. Argentina is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world  hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory.
The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates estancias. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols , known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture.
The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe. The National Parks of Argentina make up a network of 35 national parks in Argentina. In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features. Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.
In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals. Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires , as designated by Congress. The Legislative branch consists of the bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law , declares war , approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment , by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
In the Executive branch, the President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The Judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative , and appointed by the President on Senate approval. Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city , Buenos Aires.
Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments and municipalities , except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes. Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government;  they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution.
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta in , and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the Constitution of Argentina in , and was made a federal territory in An law designated as national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces.
A middle power ,  Argentina bases its foreign policies on the guiding principles of non-intervention ,  [ need quotation to verify ] human rights, self-determination , international cooperation , disarmament and peaceful settlement of conflicts. In Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti , Cyprus , Western Sahara and the Middle East.
Juan Carlos Pugliese (padre)
This book brings together non-Western viewpoints on military pedagogy and professional military education PME. In doing so, it seeks to provide a counterbalance to the predominantly European and North American bias found within the research field, as well as generating new insights on Latin American, African and Asian pedagogical commentaries and critiques. The collection contains essays from PME researchers and practitioners across fourteen countries, on subjects including large-scale educational reform, civil-military and academic influences on military pedagogy, internationalisation, cross-cultural collaboration, and interoperability within military education. Abstract: This chapter contends that contemporary states face an increasing range of external and internal threats to their vital interests, and that this in turn necessitates a pedagogical focus on interoperability and interconnectivity within professional military education. These frameworks incorporate intellectual, ethical and competency-based training, and operational and policy roleplaying scenarios. The chapter concludes that these methods can help to provide officers with the skillsets necessary to adapt to new security threats and to appreciate alternative socio-political and cultural perspectives, as a means of enhancing interoperability.