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In addition, procedures to be used during collection of samples are provided for reference purposes along with guidance information on related technical issues. EPA is currently in the process of amending RM 24 to make it applicable to multi-component coatings and exempt solvents, therefore, procedures to be used for these special cases are also presented in this report.
Applicability and Principle 1. This method applies to the determination of volatile matter content, water content, density, volume solids, and weight solids of paint, varnish, lacquer, or related surface coatings.
Standard methods are used to determine the volatile matter content, water content, density, volume solids, and weight solids of paint, varnish, lacquer, or related surface coatings. Applicable Standard Methods Use the apparatus, reagents, and procedures specified in the standard methods below: 2. Procedure 3. Run analyses in pairs duplicate sets for each coating until the criterion in Section 4.
Calculate the weight fraction of the volatile matter Wv for each analysis as follows:. A waterborne coating is any coating which contains more than 5 percent water by weight in its volatile fraction. Run duplicate sets of determinations until the criterion in Sec- tion 4.
Record the arithmetic average WJ. Run duplicate sets of determinations for each coating until the criterion in Section 4. Record the arithmetic average DJ. Determine the volume fraction Vs solids of the coating by calculation using the manufacturer's formulation.
Data Validation Procedures 4. The variety of coatings that may be subject to analysis makes it necessary to verify the ability of the analyst and the analytical proce- dures to obtain reproducible results for the coatings tested.
This is done by running duplicate analyses on each sample tested and comparing results with the within-laboratory precision statements for each parame- ter. Because of the inherent increased imprecision in the determination of the VOC content of waterborne coatings as the weight percent water increases, measured parameters for waterborne coatings are modified by the appropriate confidence limits based on between-laboratory precision statements.
Analytical Precision Statements. For Wv and Ww, run duplicate analyses until the difference between the two values in a set is less than or equal to the within-laboratory precision statement for that parameter.
For Dc run duplicate analyses until each value in a set deviates from the mean of the set by no more than the within-laboratory precision statement. If after several attempts it is concluded that the ASTM procedures cannot be used for the specific coating with the established within-laboratory precision, the Administrator will assume responsibility for providing the necessary procedures for revising the method or precision statements upon written request to: Director, Emission Standards and Engineering Division, MD Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.
Confidence Limit Calculations for Waterborne Coatings. To calculate the upper confidence limit, add the appropriate between-laboratory precision value to the measured mean value for that parameter. Because Vg is calculated, there is no adjustment for the parameter. Calculations 5. This method applies to the determination of the volatile organic compound VOC content and density of solvent-borne solvent reducible printing inks or related coatings.
Separate procedures are used to determine the VOC weight fraction and density of the coating and the density of the solvent in the coating. The VOC weight fraction is determined by measuring the weight loss of a known sample quantity which has been heated for a specified length of time at a specified temperature.
The density of both the coat- ing and solvent are measured by a standard procedure. From this information the VOC volume fraction is calculated. Procedure 2. Aluminum foil, 58 mm in diameter by 18 mm high, with a flat bottom. There must be at least three weighing dishes per sample. To measure to within 0. Shake or mix the sample thoroughly to assure that all the solids are completely suspended. Label and weigh to the nearest 0.
Weigh the syringe and sample to the nearest 0. Transfer 1 to 3 g of the sample to the tared weighing dish. Reweigh the syringe and sample to the nearest 0. After the weighing dish has cooled, reweigh it to the nearest 0.
Repeat this procedure for a total of three determinations for each sample. Make a total of three determinations for each coating.
Report the density D0 as the arithmetic average of the three determinations. Calculations 3. Calculate the weight fraction volatile organic content W0 using the following equation: Report the weight fraction VOC W0 as the arithmetic average of the three determinations.
Bibliography 4. September 25, Gravure Ink Analysis. In compiling them, the most recent edition of the method available is included when no edition year is cited in the reference.
A numocr in parcntneici indicates me year of lau rcapprovaL TJiii mmW kai tarn afpnvra far tut dv arrnrrrj of ikt Otfarmm of Dtftnsi re rmlact Mtttiod 41X4. Standard ,Vo. Scope l. It is particularly applicable where the fluid has too high a viscosity or where a component is too volatile for a specific gravity balance determination.
U u equally well suited for work in which leu accu- racy is required, by ignoring the directions for recal- ibntion and consideration ot" temperature differen- tials, by using the container as a -weight-per-galloa" cap.
Apparatus 4. In such cases, use of a hanging pan. Calibration of Pycnometer or Cup 5. Current edition aeoroved Scot. I Onguuiiv uuicd I9J7.
Chromic acid see 5. For maximum accuracy, rinsing. Fingerprints on the container will change the weight and must be avoided.
Record the weight. Af, in grams. Avoid contact with eyes, skin or clothing. In making dilute solu- tion, always add acid to water with care. In case of contact, flush skin with water, using a shower if exposure is severe. Flush eyes for 12 minutes with copious amounts of water. Im- mediately call a physician. Remove clothing immediately and wash before reuse. Chromic acid cleaning solution is a strong oxidizer. Avoid contact with organic or reducing sub- stances as a fire could results.
Cap the container. Immediately remove excess overflowed water or water held in de- pressions by wiping dry with absorbent mate- rial. Avoid occluding air bubbles in the con- tainer. Use the constant-tem- perature bath or room if necessary. This will cause further slight flow of water from the overflow onfice due to the expansion of the water with the rise of the temperature. Dry the outside of the con- tainer, if necessary, by wiping with absorbent material Do not remove overflow which occurs subsequent to the first wiping after attainment of the desired.
Immedi- ately weigh the filled container to the nearest LOO I? Record this weight, tf, in grams. V - weight of container and water, g 5. Procedure 6. Record the weight of the filled container. W, and the weight of the empty container, w, in grams. S J Report mean of determinations by that person by more 7. Scope 1. Although the technique used is the same, residence times in the oven differ.
The two procedures are designated as follows: I. These coatings single package, heat cured are commonly applied in factories to automobiles, metal containers, flat coil metal and large appliances and many other metal pans.
Procedure B is presumed applicable, sub- ject to further precision studies, to most kinds of paints and related coatings intended for either ambient or baking film formation, except where substantial amounts of volatiles may be consumed or produced in chemical reactions during Him formation. Current edition approved June i6.
JJ Aluminum Foil Dish. Unless otherwise indicated. Specification DM2. Specification D Procedure j.
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Standard Test Method for Water in Paints and Paint Materials by Karl Fischer Method